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Heuristics: The Foundations of Adaptive Behavior

Pret: 1020.00 RON
Disponibil in 14 zile!

Gerd Gigerenzer (Editor)

Heuristics: The Foundations of Adaptive Behavior

Editura: OXFORD UNIV PR

Anul aparitiei: 2011

How do people make decisions when time is limited, information unreliable, and the future uncertain? Based on the work of Nobel laureate Herbert Simon and with the help of colleagues around the world, the Adaptive Behavior and Cognition (ABC) Group at the Max Planck Institute for Human Development in Berlin has developed a research program on simple heuristics, also known as fast and frugal heuristics. In the social sciences, heuristics have been believed to be generally inferior to complex methods for inference, or even irrational. Although this may be true in small worlds where everything is known for certain, we show that in the actual world in which we live, full of uncertainties and surprises, heuristics are indispensable and often more accurate than complex methods. Contrary to a deeply entrenched belief, complex problems do not necessitate complex computations. Less can be more. Simple heuristics exploit the information structure of the environment, and thus embody ecological rather than logical rationality. Simon (1999) applauded this new program as a revolution in cognitive science, striking a great blow for sanity in the approach to human rationality. By providing a fresh ...

  

Better Doctors, Better Patients, Better Decisions:

Pret: 154.00 RON
Disponibil in 14 zile!

Gerd Gigerenzer (Editor)

Better Doctors, Better Patients, Better Decisions: Envisioning Health Care 2020

Editura: MIT PR

Anul aparitiei: 2011

How eliminating "risk illiteracy" among doctors and patients will lead to better health care decision making.Contrary to popular opinion, one of the main problems in providing uniformly excellent health care is not lack of money but lack of knowledge -- on the part of both doctors and patients. The studies in this book show that many doctors and most patients do not understand the available medical evidence. Both patients and doctors are "risk illiterate" -- frequently unable to tell the difference between actual risk and relative risk. Further, unwarranted disparity in treatment decisions is the rule rather than the exception in the United States and Europe. All of this contributes to much wasted spending in health care.The contributors to Better Doctors, Better Patients, Better Decisions investigate the roots of the problem, from the emphasis in medical research on technology and blockbuster drugs to the lack of education for both doctors and patients. They call for a new, more enlightened health care, with better medical education, journals that report study outcomes completely and transparently, and patients in control of their personal medical records, not afraid of statistics ...

  

Heuristics and the Law

Pret: 359.00 RON
Disponibil in 14 zile!

Gerd Gigerenzer (Editor)

Heuristics and the Law

Editura: MIT PR

Anul aparitiei: 2006

Experts in law, psychology, and economics explore the power of "fast and frugal" heuristics in the creation and implementation of lawIn recent decades, the economists' concept of rational choice has dominated legal reasoning. And yet, in practical terms, neither the lawbreakers the law addresses nor officers of the law behave as the hyperrational beings postulated by rational choice. Critics of rational choice and believers in "fast and frugal heuristics" propose another approach: using certain formulations or general principles (heuristics) to help navigate in an environment that is not a well-ordered setting with an occasional disturbance, as described in the language of rational choice, but instead is fundamentally uncertain or characterized by an unmanageable degree of complexity. This is the intuition behind behavioral law and economics. In Heuristics and the Law, experts in law, psychology, and economics explore the conceptual and practical power of the heuristics approach in law. They discuss legal theory; modeling and predicting the problems the law purports to solve; the process of making law, in the legislature or in the courtroom; the application of existing law in the ...

  

Bounded Rationality: The Adaptive Toolbox

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Gerd Gigerenzer (Editor)

Bounded Rationality: The Adaptive Toolbox

Editura: MIT PR

Anul aparitiei: 2002

In a complex and uncertain world, humans and animals make decisions under the constraints of limited knowledge, resources, and time. Yet models of rational decision making in economics, cognitive science, biology, and other fields largely ignore these real constraints and instead assume agents with perfect information and unlimited time. About forty years ago, Herbert Simon challenged this view with his notion of "bounded rationality." Today, bounded rationality has become a fashionable term used for disparate views of reasoning.This book promotes bounded rationality as the key to understanding how real people make decisions. Using the concept of an "adaptive toolbox," a repertoire of fast and frugal rules for decision making under uncertainty, it attempts to impose more order and coherence on the idea of bounded rationality. The contributors view bounded rationality neither as optimization under constraints nor as the study of people's reasoning fallacies. The strategies in the adaptive toolbox dispense with optimization and, for the most part, with calculations of probabilities and utilities. The book extends the concept of bounded rationality from cognitive tools to emotions; it ...

  

Better Doctors, Better Patients, Better Decisions:

Pret: 189.00 RON
Disponibil in 14 zile!

Gerd Gigerenzer (Editor)

Better Doctors, Better Patients, Better Decisions: Envisioning Health Care 2020

Editura: MIT PR

Anul aparitiei: 2013

How eliminating "risk illiteracy" among doctors and patients will lead to better health care decision making.Contrary to popular opinion, one of the main problems in providing uniformly excellent health care is not lack of money but lack of knowledge -- on the part of both doctors and patients. The studies in this book show that many doctors and most patients do not understand the available medical evidence. Both patients and doctors are "risk illiterate" -- frequently unable to tell the difference between actual risk and relative risk. Further, unwarranted disparity in treatment decisions is the rule rather than the exception in the United States and Europe. All of this contributes to much wasted spending in health care.The contributors to Better Doctors, Better Patients, Better Decisions investigate the roots of the problem, from the emphasis in medical research on technology and blockbuster drugs to the lack of education for both doctors and patients. They call for a new, more enlightened health care, with better medical education, journals that report study outcomes completely and transparently, and patients in control of their personal medical records, not afraid of statistics ...

  
 
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